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Tuesday, 17 February 2009

FAMILY OF THE WEEK : VERBENACEAE


Tectona grandis(Teak)

Clerodendrum multiflorum


GmelinaArborea(shivan)


Clerodendrum serratum(Bharangi)


Petrea volubilis


Clerodendrum viscosum


Citharexylum quadrangulare


FAMILY OF THE WEEK : VERBENACEAE
A large family mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. In India it is represented by 21 genera and 125 species occurring mostly in southern and western India and the tropical and subtropical Himalayas.
Vegetative characters:
Mostly annual or perennial herbs, sometimes shrubs or trees and rarely woody climbers(Petrea). Avicennia is a mangrove shrub or small tree.
The stem is often quadrangular and increases in thickness by formation of concentric rings of cambium. The leaves are usually opposite or whorled, exstipulate, simple or rarely pinnately or palmately compound.
Inflorescence and flowers :
The Inflorescence may be cymose, racemose or spicate. The cymes are often compound or panicled as in Tectona. The bracts and bracteoles are usually present.
The flowers are bisexual or sometimes polygamous by abor, more or less zygomorphic, usually pentamerous and hypogynous. The calyx is gamosepalous, persistent and usually five toothed or lobed. The corolla is gamopetalous, tubular and the tube often cylindric, limb bi lipped or unequally five lobed. The lobes are imbricate in bud. The stamens are four didynamous and epipetalous on the corolla tube. The anthers are dithecous, introrse and opening lengthwise. The gynoecium is bicarpellary and syncarpous. The ovary is superior with as many locules as the number of carpels. The stigma has as many lobes as the number of carpels.
Fruits and seeds :
The fruit is a drupe with one seeded pyrenes. The seeds have a straight embryo and are nonendospermic or with scanty endosperm.
Pollination and dispersal :
Mostly pollinated by bees and butterflies.The seeds are dispersed by birds and animals.
Examples :
Tectona grandis (Teak, Sag)
Premma bengalensis
Vitex altissima
Vitex negundo
(Nirgudi)
Gmelina arborea
(Shivan)
Lantana camara

Duranta repens

Petrea volubilis

Clerodendrum

Holmskioldia sanguinea
(Chinese hat plant)
Caryopteris incana.
Citharexylum quadrangulare

1 comment:

Munish Kumar said...

i have obtained bharangi plants from some source,but not sure if it is the same plant a the images differ.Can someone help to recognise